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Cancer knowledge base
Microscopic examination of the tissue material taken from the patient in order to assess the nature of the disease process. The field of science dealing with the characterization of microscopic changes occurring in diseased tissues is histopathology. The subject of the histopathological examination is the histologically processed biological material collected from the examined person by means of biopsy, smear or direct examination of excreta and body secretions. A type of histopathological examination is the cytopathological examination. According to this distinction, the histopathological examination is characterized by work on the cell mass, and the cytopathological examination by work on individual cells. In both methods, the material is collected and processed in a specific and different way, therefore their accuracy and usefulness are different.
IHC study (ImmunoHistoChemical)
The examination significantly extends the possibility of precisely determining the type of neoplasm, which has many consequences for the application of the treatment method. The test enables the detection of antigens in the tissue / cytological material / with the use of antibodies bound to them / antigen-antibody reaction / in order to e.g. obtain information about the sensitivity of a neoplastic focus to certain drugs.
Removal of organ or tumor tissue from the body for microscopic examination to determine the type of lesion. Biopsies are performed by puncturing the organ / aspiration biopsy / or during surgery in case of suspicious tissue hyperplasia / open surgical biopsy.
Treatment with chemical preparations that inhibit the growth of cancer cells.
Clinically detectable change resulting from excessive tissue growth.
Lymphatic / lymphatic vessels
Vein-like vessels that drain lymph from the tissues.
Cancer - tumor
It can be benign, non-malignant (the tumor is slowly growing, does not destroy surrounding tissue and does not metastasize) or malignant (rapidly growing, destroys surrounding tissue and causes metastasis. Seek medical attention quickly and start treatment)
The change in cells on which cancer develops more than in other diseases.
Treatment with ionizing radiation, which consists in using the ability of ionizing radiation / X-rays, gamma, electron beam, neutrons to destroy living cells.
AGRICULTURAL CANCERCARCINOMA PAPILLARE - benign epithelial tumor, growing on the surface of the mucous membranes.
COIL CANCERCARCINOMA TUBULARE - invasive, well-differentiated cancer with a good prognosis. It occurs in younger women bilaterally or multifocally in one nipple.
INVASIVE CANCERCARCINOMA INVASIVUM - the stage of cancer growing deep into the mucosa and then reaching the breast tissue.
COLLOID CANCER - a type of invasive duct carcinoma, also called mucinous carcinoma.
PREVENTIVE CANCERCARCINOMA PRAEINVASIVUM (IN SITU) - cancer whose cells remain in the digestive tract or the mammary glands do not penetrate the wall of the ducts into adipose tissue. As a rule, this type of cancer does not spread to other organs.
DUCTILE INFLAMMATORY CANCER (INVASIVE)CARCINOMA DUCTALE INFILTRANS (INVASIVUM) - the tumor is formed in the milk ducts, penetrates through their walls into adipose tissue, blood vessels and spreads to other organs.
CORINE CANCERCARCINOMA MEDULLARE - a type of invasive cancer that develops and affects healthy tissue.
SITUATE CANCERCARCINOMA CRIBRIFORME - a non-invasive cancer that grows very slowly and does not spread to other organs.
Mucosal cancerCARCINOMA MUCINOSUM - a form of invasive, growing and metastatic cancer.
"COMEDO" Cancer - a non-invasive, conical form of intraductal cancer that grows rapidly but does not metastasize.
INTRAVIVIDUAL CANCERCARCINOMA DUCTALE IN SITU - pre-invasive cancer growing from the milk ducts does not usually metastasize.
Lobster cancerIN SITU CARCINOMA LOBURALE IN SITU - abnormal cells growing inside the mammary glands, quite common in both breasts. Their presence may increase the risk of invasive cancer.
LIBERATIC CANCER INFLAMMATORY (INVASIVE)CARCINOMA LOBURALE INFICTRANS (INVASIVUME) - invasive tumor, arising in the lactic lobules.
HORMONAL FORMULAS - special proteins associated with the interior of the cell, found in target cells, which are sensitive to the action of a given hormone. Under their influence, cancer cells can multiply. Hormone receptors can be influenced by hormone therapies to inhibit tumor growth.
ESTROGEN RECEPTORS (ER) - estrogen-sensitive receptors.
PROGESTRON RECEPTORS (PGR) - receptors sensitive to the action of progesterone.
HER2 RECEPTORS - a protein immersed in the cell membrane, which in a healthy cell performs many functions, including it enables contact with the surrounding environment, reacting to received stimuli, regulating the process of growth of normal cell division. In a neoplastic cell, the number of receptor molecules on the cell surface increases / the so-called overexpression /, resulting in loss of control and unrestrained tumor growth.
RESULTS OF TESTS ON HER2 RECEPTOR - make sure your research includes information about the HER2 receptor
HER2 - 0 or 1+ means that the tumor cells do not have an overabundance of HER2, i.e. your tumor is HER2 negative.
HER2 - 2+ means that the result is ambiguous / borderline /, to determine the exact type of neoplasm, an additional FISH test should be performed.
HER2 - 3+ means that there are too many HER2 receptors on the tumor cells, i.e. your tumor is "HER2 positive"
Milk lobules (glands)
The unit that builds the glands at the front of the breast, the site of milk production.